If the pile or windrow is To investigate the actual variation of antibiotic resistance, a comprehensive temperature-programmed composting process was explored, and the temperature conditions were optimized to assure the minimum temperature required for each composting stage ( Wang et al., … In the primary stage, a high rate of biological activity results in rapid composting and high temperatures in the pile. No. 8 Phytopathogenic Aspects of Composting 76 8.1 Inactivation of Plant Pathogens during Composting 77 8.2 Adverse Effects of Fresh, Immature Compost on Plant Growth 77 8.3 Control of Soilborne Plant Pathogens by Compost 77 8.4 Control of Foliar Diseases by Compost Water Extracts 78 9 Balancing the Composting Process 78 9.1 Mass Balance 79 Composting is an aerobic method (meaning that it requires the presence of air) of decomposing organic solid wastes. Choose an area of your yard with some shade so the material doesn’t dry out. • The first 2–6 weeks • Longer if the process is stagnant At this stage, fresh, raw compost has lots of readily available food for microbes. The pile may reach 140° F or more. Composting is an aerobic process, during which organic waste is biologically degraded by micro-organisms to humus-like material. H�TT}P��][email protected]@���N�Pj��DȤ63i�h���S����ݭ�����:�AM��Glu�ȉ�Q����+��̨cmF���83ӱ���{�J��{�v����{���y�� � BjA�R�BM�7�x~Z�9#��]����D�d���#�a�3�a9�����;J�r��S�X����W���-� �l�����3�Kp���� �a.��"X_���u8VC/`6�&�n��.���wxއ��S"�p�D)QI�A, �+/��h Z�]�b�I�G�~b�8M���A�%�I �B�6�r&�r���� �H��;�=d'y��y����A~K�H> �MK{��ei�,������⤵!x$5`��$��U��)���! H��W�r�6���+�HuF��|�����XoIh maturity stages of composting process (June and July -2010) Sl. Compost bacteria combine carbon with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and energy. H�b```f``y�����j� Ȁ �[email protected]��������/8�:`�@��� �;*��i�ݍ�ID7H}`�b�f�����C��� Bacteria proliferate as simple food sources such as sugars, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are consumed. 0000019626 00000 n The four phases include: 1) the mesophilic phase; 2) the thermophilic phase; … Composting method can degrade all types of organic wastes like fruits, vegetables, plants, yard wastes and others. 0000001099 00000 n For smaller backyards, static or tumbling compost bins are good options. The main product is called compost, which may be defined as the stabilized and san-itized product of composting, compatible and beneficial to plant growth. Turning practices and the common length of each phase trailer << /Size 188 /Info 162 0 R /Root 164 0 R /Prev 248783 /ID[] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 164 0 obj << /PageMode /UseThumbs /Metadata 161 0 R /AcroForm 166 0 R /Pages 156 0 R /PageLayout /SinglePage /OpenAction 165 0 R /Type /Catalog /PageLabels 154 0 R >> endobj 165 0 obj << /S /GoTo /D [ 167 0 R /FitH -32768 ] >> endobj 166 0 obj << /Fields [ ] /DA (/Helv 0 Tf 0 g ) /DR << /Font << /Helv 101 0 R /ZaDb 102 0 R >> /Encoding << /PDFDocEncoding 100 0 R >> >> >> endobj 186 0 obj << /S 706 /T 829 /V 898 /L 920 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 187 0 R >> stream (����i����"�SS�3R�q���?b-��F��0��+�e!�!��F^�|Hʼn����|�-��C��5��UA6����yYaE�APT�+`�� 0000006777 00000 n Some of the energy is used by the microorganisms for reproduction and growth; the rest is given off as heat. 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